Homosexual history reich code

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#1 Homosexual history reich code

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Homosexual history reich code

Around the turn of the century there was a fairly significant gay rights movement in Germany under the leadership of Magnus Hirschfeld and his organization, the Scientific Humanitarian Committee. The major goals of the movement were to educate the public and to bring about the repeal of Paragraph At the close of World War I, there was a somewhat more liberal climate in Germany and the Weimar Republic, while it did not repeal the existing law, did not enforce the law with the same zeal as the First Reich. There was a proliferation of homosexual meeting places, books, articles and films and homosexuality was considerably more open and more Ligh sensitive paper discussed. In the mid's the government reacted to these developments by attempting to enforce the laws more vigorously and to pass more restrictive legislation. Inafter a couple of years of debate and discussion, the attempt failed by a narrow majority in the Reichstag. Homosexuals felt that a major victory had been achieved. However, in all of the discussion, a clear voice was heard from the Nazi deputies in the Assembly who voiced the conviction that it was the Jews who were leading this movement in an attempt to undermine the morality of the German people. The racial theme in their position also emerged in their argument that homosexuality has a detrimental impact on desired Aryan family size and population increase -- thus impacting German Homosexual history reich code. Therefore, homosexuality was incompatible with racial purity. This was later to be one of Himmler's major arguments. That voice was to become very loud and clear when the Nazi Party gained control in The leadership of the Nazi Party included at least one avowed homosexual, Ernst Homosexual history reich code. He was a member of Hirschfeld's League for Human...

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Under Nazi law, homosexuality was deemed non-Aryan and as such homosexuals were far more persecuted in Nazi Germany than under the Weimar regime. Under Paragraph of the German Criminal Code sex between men aged 21 and over was punishable by a prison sentence. Paragraph a dealt with those aged under 21 years. However, the law stated that specific evidence was needed that sex had taken place and this evidence was frequently very difficult to acquire. As a result during the Weimar government and in the first two years of Nazi rule, many charged with homosexual behaviour were found not guilty and released. This changed in June This change led to a major rise in the number of men arrested. Many were charged with crimes that had previously not been a criminal offence. In a speech given to SS men in February , he compared the campaign against homosexuals to be no different from digging up weeds in a garden. During the speech, Himmler made it clear that if any SS man was found to be homosexual, he would be arrested, publicly humiliated, sent to a concentration camp where he would be shot trying to escape: I will make that known by order to the unit to which the person so infected belonged. Between January and June , 4, men were convicted under the old Paragraph — around 4 a day. Another 10, men were arrested from June to June By the end of World War Two , it is thought that , homosexual men had been arrested with 50, sent to prison. While figures are vague, it is thought that between 5, and 15, were sent to concentration camps. In June a new law was passed titled: If someone was found guilty under this law, a judge was...

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Click the button at right to start using the new version. The version you are viewing now will remain online until August While male homosexuality remained illegal in Weimar Germany under Paragraph of the criminal code, German homosexual-rights activists became worldwide leaders in efforts to reform societal attitudes that condemned homosexuality. Many in Germany regarded the Weimar Republic 's toleration of homosexuals as a sign of Germany's decadence. The Nazis posed as moral crusaders who wanted to stamp out the "vice" of homosexuality from Germany in order to help win the racial struggle. Once they took power in , the Nazis intensified persecution of German male homosexuals. Persecution ranged from the dissolution of homosexual organizations to internment in concentration camps. The Nazis persecuted homosexuals as part of their so-called moral crusade to racially and culturally purify Germany. An estimated 5, to 15, men were sent to concentration camps on similar charges, where an unknown number of them perished. Lesbians were not regarded as a threat to Nazi racial policies and were generally not targeted for persecution. Similarly, the Nazis generally did not target non-German homosexuals unless they were active with German partners. In most cases, the Nazis were prepared to accept former homosexuals into the "racial community" provided that they became "racially conscious" and gave up their lifestyle. Four days later, most of this collection of over 12, books and 35, irreplaceable pictures was destroyed along with thousands of other "degenerate" works of literature in the book burning in Berlin's city center. The remaining materials were never recovered. Magnus Hirschfeld, the founder of the Institute and a pioneer in the scientific study of human sexuality, was lecturing in France at the time and chose not to return to Germany. The destruction of the Institute was a first step toward...

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It made homosexual acts between males a crime, and in early revisions the provision also criminalized bestiality as well as forms of prostitution and underage sexual abuse. All in all, around , men were convicted under the law. The statute drew legal influence from previous measures, including those undertaken by the Holy Roman Empire and Prussian states. It was amended several times. The Nazis broadened the law in ; in the prosecutions that followed, thousands died in concentration camps as a widespread social persecution of homosexuals took place. Paragraph was adopted in , shortly after Germany was unified. Beginning in the s, sexual reformers fought against the "disgraceful paragraph", [1] and soon won the support of August Bebel , head of the Social Democratic Party SPD. However, a petition in the Reichstag to abolish Paragraph foundered in In , the Nazis broadened the law so that the courts could pursue any "lewd act" whatsoever, even one involving no physical contact, such as masturbating next to each other. Thus, over 10, homosexual men were forced into concentration camps, where they were identified by the pink triangle. The majority of them died there. While the Nazi persecution of homosexuals is reasonably well known today, far less attention has been given to the continuation of this persecution in post-war Germany. About , men were implicated in legal proceedings from to , and about 50, were convicted. In , the government eased Paragraph by providing for an age of consent of Most sodomy-related laws in Western civilization originated from the growth of Christianity during Late Antiquity. In the words of Paragraph of that code:. The punishment for fornication that goes against nature. When a human commits fornication with a beast, a man with a man, a woman with a woman, they have...

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However, five million additional individuals were persecuted, including a significant proportion of homosexuals. Our report does not include female homosexuals because at this time sexual relations between women was not illegal and therefore they were not persecuted for their sexuality. The estimate of homosexual victims of the Holocaust ranges from less than 10, to one million, as the result of a variety of factors. First of all, Nazis had little concern over the number of homosexuals they killed; therefore, they did not maintain precise records. Secondly, along with the rest of the records of those killed during this time, when the Nazis realized the prospect of losing World War II, they likely destroyed the few records of homosexual victims they did keep. Lastly, since homosexuality remained illegal in West Germany until , those released from camps were not eager to admit their homosexuality for fear of punishment. Along these lines, in order to emigrate outside of Germany, those avoiding persecution were forced to lie about their homosexuality on travel documents. Survivors are therefore afraid to come forward with their stories for fear of losing their visas. Discrimination against homosexuals was not a new phenomenon to the Nazi regime. In , Section was added to the Reich Penal code, which criminalized homosexuality under German rule. Adolf Brand pushed for the reform of this section in until the government on October 16, approved it. Though these reforms were approved in , they were not put into effect until after the Great Depression, when the German government once again had the means to enforce these policies. In the following years, between and , an estimated 63, were convicted of homosexuality, many of which were sent to concentration camps. Once convicted, those sent to concentration camps were required to wear a pink cloth triangle...

Homosexual history reich code

Medieval and early modern periods

Discrimination against homosexuals was not a new phenomenon to the Nazi regime. In , Section was added to the Reich Penal code, which. What were the events leading to the Nazi persecution of homosexuals and the The adoption of this code was a major setback to the work of the world's first gay . By , million Reich Marks had been distributed to one million mothers. Professor Eckhardt of Berlin University, the authority on legal history, said. – The Decretum of Burchard of Worms equates homosexual acts with other sexual the German Empire by Paragraph of the Reich Criminal Code.

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