History of vulcanized rubber

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#1 History of vulcanized rubber

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History of vulcanized rubber

You might be surprised to know that the rubber in your tires and so many other modern uses begins as a white, liquid type substance called latex that is derived from certain plants. Theoretically, rubber could be made by growing dandelions, though considering the amount of rubber History of vulcanized rubber in the world today, half the globe would have to be dandelion farms. There are approximately plants in the world that could supply latex, though the source History of vulcanized rubber over 99 percent of the natural rubber currently produced comes from the Hevea brasiliensis tree, or the rubber tree. The problem with natural rubber is that it is not useful in its unaltered state. In hot temperatures, the rubber melts and becomes sticky. In cold temperatures, it gets rigid and brittle. Enter a process called vulcanization. Not unlike curing, vulcanization is the treatment of rubber with heat and originally sulfur to bring it to a molecular state which can be used History of vulcanized rubber a variety of applications. Adding sulfur to the vulcanization process gives the rubber better strength, elasticity, and durability. Natural rubber is most like chewing gum or Play-doh in its natural state. When stretched, it does not stretch back. When the rubber is compressed, it will carry a dent. The vulcanization process allows the rubber to crosslink, or harden. Use of rubber dates back to 1, BC, the era of the Aztecs, who extracted it from trees and used the heat from their hands to form it into balls. Their ancient ball courts are still on History of vulcanized rubber today at ruins throughout Mexico and South America. However, the first pioneer of rubber in the industrial age was Charles Goodyear, for whom the famous Goodyear tire company is named after. Goodyear was a...

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Vulcanization , chemical process by which the physical properties of natural or synthetic rubber are improved; finished rubber has higher tensile strength and resistance to swelling and abrasion, and is elastic over a greater range of temperatures. In its simplest form, vulcanization is brought about by heating rubber with sulfur. The process was discovered in by the U. Such a material, called an accelerator q. The reactions between rubber and sulfur are not fully understood, but in the product, the sulfur is not simply dissolved or dispersed in the rubber; it is chemically combined, mostly in the form of cross-links, or bridges, between the long-chain molecules. Anti-oxidants are also commonly included to retard deterioration caused by oxygen and ozone. Certain synthetic rubbers are not vulcanized by sulfur but give satisfactory products upon similar treatment with metal oxides or organic peroxides. We welcome suggested improvements to any of our articles. You can make it easier for us to review and, hopefully, publish your contribution by keeping a few points in mind. Your contribution may be further edited by our staff, and its publication is subject to our final approval. Unfortunately, our editorial approach may not be able to accommodate all contributions. Our editors will review what you've submitted, and if it meets our criteria, we'll add it to the article. Please note that our editors may make some formatting changes or correct spelling or grammatical errors, and may also contact you if any clarifications are needed. The Editors of Encyclopaedia Britannica. Learn More in these related Britannica articles: The molecular behaviour outlined above is sufficient to give polymers the properties of extensibility and elasticity, but in many cases the properties of elastomers must be modified in order to turn them into useful rubbery materials. The necessity for such modification was first...

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Vulcanization or vulcanisation is a chemical process for converting natural rubber or related polymers into more durable materials by heating them with sulfur [1] or other equivalent curatives or accelerators. These additives modify the polymer by forming cross-links bridges between individual polymer chains. The term vulcanized fiber refers to cellulose that has been treated in a zinc chloride solution to cross-link the cellulose fibers. Although curing of rubber has been carried out since prehistoric times, [4] the modern process of vulcanization was not developed until the 19th century, mainly by Charles Goodyear. A vast array of products are made with vulcanized rubber, including tires, shoe soles, hoses, and conveyor belts. The term "vulcanization" is named after Vulcan , the Roman god of fire. Hard vulcanized rubber is sometimes sold under the brand name Ebonite or the genericized former brand term "vulcanite", and is used in making articles such as clarinet and saxophone mouth pieces, bowling balls , and ice hockey pucks. Although vulcanization is a nineteenth-century invention, the history of rubber cured by other means goes back to prehistoric times. Ancient Mesoamericans , spanning from ancient Olmecs to Aztecs, extracted latex from Castilla elastica , a type of rubber tree in the area. The juice of a local vine, Ipomoea alba , was then mixed with this latex to create processed rubber as early as BC. In Nathaniel Hayward and Friedrich Ludersdorf discovered that rubber treated with sulfur lost all its stickiness. It is likely Hayward shared his discovery with Goodyear, possibly inspiring him to make the discovery of vulcanisation. Thomas Hancock — , a scientist and engineer, was the first to patent vulcanization of rubber. He was awarded a British patent on May 21, Goodyear claimed that he had discovered vulcanization earlier, in He wrote the story...

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History of vulcanized rubber

Charles Goodyear received two patents for methods of making rubber better.

Dec 29, - History of the Vulcanization of Rubber on Global O-Ring and Seal | About Natural Rubber You might be surprised to know that the rubber in. Apr 2, - In , he began experimenting with natural rubber. In , he accidentally discovered the process of vulcanization. He struggled to patent it, as Thomas Hancock had recently patented vulcanized rubber. Goodyear died broke on July 19, in New York City. Charles Goodyear made improvements in india rubber fabrics used in tires and invented vulcanized rubber.

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