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#1 Asian countries ruled by colonial

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Countriws decolonization of Asia was the gradual growth of independence movements in Asialeading ultimately rulef the retreat of foreign powers and the creation of a number of nation-states in the region. A number of events were catalysts for this shift, most importantly the Second World War. Prior to World War II, some countries e. European powers began colonising Asia in the early 16th century, beginning with the Porn tyler banks seizure of sites, while along the west coast of India, Ceylon and Malacca. InPortugal established a permanent base in Malacca. InSpain commenced its colonisation of the Philippine Islands, creating a long sea trade route via Mexico to Spain. The decline of Asuan and Portugal in the 17th century paved the way for other European powers, namely the Netherlands, France and England. Portugal would lose influence in all but three of its colonies, Portuguese IndiaMacau and Timor. By the end of the 17th century, the Dutch had taken over much of the old Portuguese colonies, and had established a strong presence in present-day Indonesia, with colonies in AcehBantamMakassar and Jakarta. Coubtries last British acquisition in Asia was the New Territories of Hong Kong, which Adult cheat stories leased from the Qing emperor inexpanding the British colony originally ceded in the Treaty of Nanking in The French had little success in India following defeats against the British in the 17th century, though they held onto possessions on the east coast of India such as Pondicherry and Mahar until decolonization. The French established their most Asiah and substantial colony in Indochina fromeventually occupying the present-day areas of VietnamLaos and Cambodia by Japan's first colony was the island of Taiwanoccupied in and officially ceded by the Qing emperor in Rulec continued its early imperialism with the annexation of Korea in The United...

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In the last half of the 18th century, all the major states of Southeast Asia were faced with crisis. The great political and social structures of the classical states had begun to decay, and, although the reasons for this disintegration are not altogether clear, the expanded size of the states, the greater complexity of their societies, and the failure of older institutions to cope with change all must have played a part. The most serious circumstances were undoubtedly those of Vietnam, where from to there raged a struggle—the Tay Son rebellion —over the very nature of the state. This rebellion threatened to sweep away the entire Confucian establishment of Vietnam, and perhaps would have done so if its leader had not attempted to accomplish too much too quickly. Elsewhere, war and confusion held societies in their grip for much shorter periods, but everywhere rulers were compelled to think of changed circumstances around them and what they meant for the future. In the mainland states three great rulers of three new dynasties came to the fore: All three were fully aware of the dangers, internal as well as external, that faced them and their people, and their efforts were directed at meeting these challenges. As their armies extended their reach beyond earlier limits, these rulers vigorously pursued a combination of traditional and new policies designed to strengthen their realms. Of particular importance were efforts to bring villages under closer state control, curb shifting patron-client relationships, and centralize and tighten the state administrative apparatus. The institution of kingship itself seemed to become more dynamic and intimately involved in the direction of the state. In retrospect, some of these policies had a recognizably modern ring to them, and taken together they represented, if not a revolution, at least a concerted effort at change....

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Western imperialism in Asia as presented in this article pertains to Western European entry into what was first called the East Indies. This was sparked early in the 15th century by the search for trade routes to China that led directly to the Age of Discovery , and the introduction of early modern warfare into what was then called the Far East. By the early 16th century the Age of Sail greatly expanded Western European influence and development of the Spice Trade under colonialism. There has been a presence of Western European colonial empires and imperialism in Asia throughout six centuries of colonialism , formally ending with the independence of the Portuguese Empire 's last colony East Timor in The empires introduced Western concepts of nation and the multinational state. This article attempts to outline the consequent development of the Western concept of the nation state. The thrust of European political power, commerce, and culture in Asia gave rise to growing trade in commodities —a key development in the rise of today's modern world free market economy. In the 16th century, the Portuguese broke the overland monopoly of the Arabs and Italians of trade between Asia and Europe by the discovery of the sea route to India around the Cape of Good Hope. Later, the English and the French established settlements in India and established a trade with China and their own acquisitions would gradually surpass those of the Dutch. Before the Industrial Revolution in the mid-to-late 19th century, demand for oriental goods such as porcelain , silk , spices and tea remained the driving force behind European imperialism, and with the important exception of British East India Company rule in India the European stake in Asia remained confined largely to trading stations and strategic outposts necessary to protect...

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Between and , three dozen new states in Asia and Africa achieved autonomy or outright independence from their European colonial rulers. There was no one process of decolonization. In some areas, it was peaceful, and orderly. In many others, independence was achieved only after a protracted revolution. A few newly independent countries acquired stable governments almost immediately; others were ruled by dictators or military juntas for decades, or endured long civil wars. Some European governments welcomed a new relationship with their former colonies; others contested decolonization militarily. The process of decolonization coincided with the new Cold War between the Soviet Union and the United States, and with the early development of the new United Nations. Decolonization was often affected by superpower competition, and had a definite impact on the evolution of that competition. It also significantly changed the pattern of international relations in a more general sense. The creation of so many new countries, some of which occupied strategic locations, others of which possessed significant natural resources, and most of which were desperately poor, altered the composition of the United Nations and political complexity of every region of the globe. In the mid to late 19th century, the European powers colonized much of Africa and Southeast Asia. During the decades of imperialism, the industrializing powers of Europe viewed the African and Asian continents as reservoirs of raw materials, labor, and territory for future settlement. In most cases, however, significant development and European settlement in these colonies was sporadic. However, the colonies were exploited, sometimes brutally, for natural and labor resources, and sometimes even for military conscripts. In addition, the introduction of colonial rule drew arbitrary natural boundaries where none had existed before, dividing ethnic and linguistic groups and natural features, and laying the foundation for the creation of numerous states...

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Colonialism and Nationalism in Southeast Asia. Portugal The Portuguese had the least impact on Southeast Asia. They captured Malacca in , holding it until the Dutch seized it in Otherwise, they maintained only a small piece of territory on the island of Timor, southeast of Bali. Spain Spain ruled the Philippines from its conquest of Cebu in and Manila in until its defeat in the Spanish-American War in The Netherlands Dutch colonialism falls into two periods. This process was completed during the s. At the end of the Second World War, the Dutch had hoped to retain the Netherlands East Indies as a colony, but the Indonesians opposed the return of the Dutch, setting up a republic in In , after four years of fighting, the Indonesians gained their independence with the assistance of the United Nations which served as a mediator between the Indonesians and the Dutch. Unlike other colonies which maintained their ethnic identity, Burma was a province of British India. The Burmese, therefore, had two sets of rulers, the British at the top with the Indians in the middle. In the British agreed to separate Burma from India, putting this agreement into effect in Burma was able to negotiate its independence from Great Britain in Penang acquired in , Singapore founded by Raffles in , and Malacca Melaka, acquired in , were governed by Britain as the Straits Settlements. The Straits Settlements served as a base for British expansion into the Malay Peninsula between and When the Malay States entered into negotiations for their independence--achieved in Penang and Malacca became part of Malaysia as did Singapore in However, Singapore was asked to withdraw from the federation in Singapore has been an independent city state since that date. Sarawak and Sabah...

Asian countries ruled by colonial

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Colonialism and Nationalism in Southeast Asia Spain ruled the Philippines from its conquest of Cebu in and Manila in until its defeat in of the United Nations which served as a mediator between the Indonesians and the Dutch. They seized lands in North and South America, Australia and New Zealand, Africa, and Asia as colonies. Some countries were able to fend off annexation. Between and , three dozen new states in Asia and Africa achieved campaigned for independence rather than a return to European colonial rule.

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